10 Jobs That Will Be Replaced By AI Tools In 2024

Ghazal Malekzadeh

By Ghazal Malekzadeh, Last Updated: January 4, 2024

10 Jobs That Will Be Replaced By AI Tools In 2024

The Rapid Advancement Of AI And Its Impact On Various Industries

Many industries are affected by AI advancement, for example: 

  • Healthcare
  • Customer Service and Experience
  • Banking, Financial Services, and Insurance (BFSI)
  • Logistics
  • Retail
  • Cybersecurity
  • Transportation
  • Marketing
  • Defense

AI technology has been a game-changer across industries, sparking big changes in how things work. Take healthcare, for example. AI is shaking things up by making diagnoses smarter and treatment planning more precise, ultimately making patient care a whole lot better. Over in finance, AI is like a secret weapon, powering things like algorithmic trading, spotting risks, and catching fraud. It’s turning the investment game upside down! In manufacturing, robots powered by AI are doing wonders, making production lines smoother, and more accurate, and even predicting when maintenance is needed.

But wait, there’s more! Retail and online shopping? They’re getting a serious upgrade thanks to AI. Think personalized recommendations that feel like they know you, chatbots that make customer service faster, and keeping those shelves stocked just right. Transportation isn’t left out either – AI is making routes smarter, helping self-driving cars, and just making everything run smoother behind the scenes. Oh, and education, entertainment, and farming? Yep, AI’s changing things there too, making learning cooler, making our shows more entertaining, and even making farming more efficient. Everywhere you look, AI’s shaking things up, making everything work a little bit smarter and better.

The Key Factors Contributing To Job Displacement By AI Tools 

You know, these fancy tech upgrades in machine learning, automation, and robots? They’re changing how we work. Picture this: machine learning algorithms are like those super-fast learners who are amazing at doing repetitive stuff, sorting through tons of data, and even making tough decisions. And guess what? They’re taking over jobs that used to need us humans to do the same thing over and over again.

Then there’s automation, the tech superhero using AI to do all those boring, predictable tasks without us stepping in. And let’s not forget our robot pals! They’re getting good at doing the physical jobs we usually do, like in factories or moving stuff around in places like warehouses and even doing delivery work.

But here’s the thing: as these AI and tech advancements keep getting better and better, they’re sort of pushing out some jobs. They’re just so good at what they do that some of the tasks we used to do are now being taken over by these super-smart machines. It’s like a super-speedy shift happening, and some jobs that used to be for us humans are now being done by these ultra-efficient machines.

What Makes Certain Jobs Susceptible To AI Replacement 

Jobs that involve doing the same things over and over again, following clear rules and patterns, are top candidates for AI taking over. Think of tasks like data entry, bookkeeping, or parts of customer service that rely a lot on analyzing information.

Then some jobs have clear step-by-step workflows or routines, like on assembly lines. Those jobs are also likely to get automated because they follow a set pattern that AI can handle well. Jobs where the work is pretty much like following a set script or where basic decisions are made following patterns? Yep, those could be taken over by AI too.

And you know those jobs that involve doing a lot of repetitive stuff, not much decision-making, and not a lot of creativity? Well, those are at a higher risk of getting automated. AI can easily handle those kinds of tasks, so they might be the ones we see changing the most in the future.

So now let’s go over the 10 jobs that are most likely going to be taken over by AI in 2024: 

The Top 10 Jobs That Will Be Replaced by AI Tools in 2024 

1. Telemarketers

Affected Industries

AI-driven telemarketing automation profoundly affects industries reliant on outbound calling. Sectors such as telecommunications, sales-focused enterprises, and fundraising organizations are witnessing significant shifts. Telecommunications companies are rethinking customer outreach strategies, while sales-driven entities are adapting their sales approaches. Fundraising sectors, historically reliant on telemarketing, are exploring new engagement methods. This AI impact reshapes outreach dynamics, challenging traditional approaches across these industries and prompting a reevaluation of engagement and sales strategies.


Telemarketers specialize in direct marketing through phone calls, reaching out to potential customers to promote products or services. Their role involves initiating cold calls, pitching the features and benefits of offerings, and generating leads by identifying interested individuals or businesses. Telemarketers handle objections or concerns raised, aiming to persuade them towards a purchase or further discussions. Their responsibilities include recording call outcomes and relevant customer information while striving to close sales or schedule follow-up appointments. Ultimately, telemarketers play a crucial role in expanding customer outreach and driving sales through direct communication over the phone.

Some companies that have telemarketing staff: 

  • Insurance Companies: Allstate, State Farm, Geico.
  • Telecommunications Providers: Rogers and Bell.
  • Financial Services: Banks like TD, CIBC, and Capital One.
  • Technology and Software Companies: Microsoft, Apple, Salesforce.
  • Retail and E-commerce: Amazon, Walmart, Target.
  • Healthcare Services: Pharmaceutical companies, health insurance providers.
  • Travel and Hospitality: Airlines, hotel chains, and travel agencies like Expedia or Marriott.
  • Educational Institutions: Colleges, universities, and online learning platforms.
  • Non-profit Organizations: Charities, fundraising organizations.
  • Real Estate Agencies: Property management companies, real estate brokerages.

The Impact of AI

The influence of AI on telemarketing is rapidly reshaping the landscape of sales and marketing industries. Emerging technologies like robocalls and automated systems have become formidable alternatives to traditional human telemarketing. These advancements specialize in carrying out repetitive tasks inherent to telemarketing, such as making calls, delivering scripted messages, and gathering basic information. Consequently, industries relying heavily on telesales, especially within the marketing and sales sectors, are undergoing a significant transformation. Integrating AI into telemarketing operations has notably boosted efficiency, trimmed costs, and enabled scalability for businesses. Furthermore, the precision and consistency offered by AI-driven systems in outreach and lead management are reshaping how companies engage with customers.

However, this transformation brings challenges, including potential job displacement and the need for human telemarketers to adapt their skill sets to complement AI technologies. As AI continually advances and showcases its capabilities in telemarketing, industries find themselves navigating a shift in how sales and marketing outreach is conducted and supervised.

The Impact on the Workforce

The integration of AI-driven telemarketing introduces a transformative wave in workforce dynamics, presenting both challenges and opportunities. The automation of telemarketing tasks may indeed lead to a reduction in traditional human telemarketing roles, potentially resulting in workforce downsizing or restructuring within affected industries. This shift poses challenges as individuals in these roles face potential layoffs or the need to adapt skill sets to align with evolving job demands.

However, amid these challenges, the evolution towards AI-driven marketing campaigns creates new avenues for employment. The demand for professionals with expertise in managing and optimizing AI-powered marketing strategies grows exponentially. Organizations seek individuals proficient in harnessing AI tools, analyzing data insights, and strategically deploying automated campaigns for enhanced customer outreach.

As traditional telemarketing roles evolve, there’s a simultaneous emergence of new career pathways that require a blend of technological acumen, data interpretation skills, and a strong focus on human-centric approaches. The impact on the workforce reflects a shift towards a hybrid landscape where technological expertise and personalized engagement harmoniously coexist, opening doors to diverse career opportunities within the evolving marketing and sales domains.

AI technologies that could take over telemarketing:

  • Automated Call Platforms (e.g., Robocallers)
  • Voice Bots and Virtual Assistants
  • Predictive Dialers
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP)
  • CRM Integration with AI

2. Bookkeeping Clerks

Affected Industries

The wave of automated bookkeeping systems is reshaping the operational landscape of several sectors. Financial institutions, accounting firms, and businesses dealing with extensive financial data volumes are experiencing a paradigm shift. For financial institutions, these systems streamline data management, aiding in handling large transactional volumes. Similarly, accounting firms leverage these tools for improved data organization and reporting. Industries reliant on precise financial record-keeping witness an evolution towards efficient and accurate bookkeeping through automation.

Description: Bookkeeping clerks hold a crucial role in upholding an organization’s financial health. Their duties encompass several vital tasks, starting with meticulously recording all financial transactions—tracking everything from purchases and sales to receipts and payments. A key focus of their work involves managing accounts payable and receivable, ensuring invoices are sent out, bills are settled promptly, and payments are received on time. These clerks meticulously sift through statements and transactions to reconcile accounts, aiming for accuracy in financial records. Additionally, they aid in crafting essential financial reports like balance sheets and income statements, providing valuable insights for decision-making purposes. Their support during financial audits is vital, ensuring compliance with regulations and the accuracy of financial documentation. Using specialized accounting software, these clerks streamline their responsibilities, significantly contributing to the organization’s ability to maintain accurate financial records and make well-informed business decisions.

Some companies that have bookkeeping staff: 

  • Accounting Firms
  • Retail Businesses
  • Manufacturing Companies
  • Healthcare Practices
  • Real Estate Agencies
  • Non-profit Organizations
  • Legal Firms
  • Small Businesses and Start-ups

The Impact of AI

Automation software like QuickBooks and FreshBooks is revolutionizing bookkeeping, particularly in finance, accounting, and SMEs. These tools streamline tasks from transaction recording to report generation, drastically boosting efficiency and accuracy. Sectors reliant on precise financial data handling experience a significant shift towards automation, marking a departure from manual processes to more effective and error-free workflows. This trend reflects a cultural shift, embracing innovative technologies to navigate complex financial data with agility and precision, ensuring a competitive edge in these industries.

The Impact on the Workforce

The transformation brought about by automating routine bookkeeping tasks significantly alters the landscape of the workforce, showing both challenges and opportunities. The inevitable shift towards automation might initially raise concerns about job displacement within traditional bookkeeping roles. As technology streamlines tasks once performed manually, there’s a possibility of reduced demand for these specific roles.

However, this technological evolution simultaneously creates a demand for a new breed of professionals equipped with advanced skill sets. Individuals adept at managing, deciphering, and harnessing the data produced by these automated systems become indispensable. This demand fosters a burgeoning focus on roles centered on data analysis, financial interpretation, and strategic planning within the financial and accounting sectors.

Professionals excelling in data management and interpretation step into pivotal roles, acting as interpreters of the data deluge generated by automated bookkeeping systems. They possess the expertise to transform raw data into actionable insights, driving strategic decisions and shaping financial trajectories. Their proficiency in recognizing patterns, identifying trends, and extracting meaningful insights from complex datasets becomes crucial in leading financial strategies. These experts aid in interpreting market shifts, optimizing financial performance, and formulating informed business decisions using data.

AI technologies that could take over bookkeeping:

  • Accounting Software with AI Integration (e.g., QuickBooks, Xero, FreshBooks)
  • Machine Learning Algorithms for fraud detection and trend analysis
  • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology for automated data entry
  • Robotic Process Automation (RPA) for automating repetitive tasks
  • Automated Invoice Processing systems
  • Expense Management Systems by AI
  • Advanced Data Analytics tools for financial insights and decision-making

3. Couriers

Affected Industries:

Automated delivery systems are reshaping crucial industries like logistics, delivery services, and e-commerce. These systems mark a significant shift in how goods move, streamlining supply chains, redefining last-mile deliveries, and revolutionizing order fulfillment. They’re optimizing inventory management, speeding up deliveries, and raising the bar for consumer expectations. In essence, their integration represents a transformative leap, setting new standards for efficiency and reliability in transporting and distributing products across these sectors.


Couriers play a fundamental role in the logistics and delivery landscape, serving as the linchpin between senders and recipients. Their responsibilities encompass various crucial tasks vital to the smooth functioning of delivery services. Couriers start by collecting packages or goods from distribution centers, businesses, or individuals, initiating the journey of these items. They meticulously plan delivery routes, ensuring efficient and timely transportation to specified destinations. Utilizing diverse modes of transportation, including cars, trucks, bicycles, or cutting-edge technologies like drones, couriers ensure the safe and swift movement of parcels. During deliveries, they engage with recipients, obtaining confirmations or signatures and providing attentive customer service. Adhering strictly to safety regulations and delivery protocols, couriers navigate through traffic and challenges to ensure secure and lawful transportation of items. Additionally, they maintain meticulous records, documenting delivery specifics and any encountered incidents, contributing significantly to the transparency and efficiency of the delivery process. Overall, couriers are essential cogs in the supply chain, pivotal in ensuring items reach their destinations promptly, securely, and with exceptional service.

Some companies that have couriers:

  • Delivery Drivers
  • Postal Workers
  • Logistics Coordinators
  • Supply Chain Managers
  • E-commerce Employees
  • Freelance Couriers
  • Retail Store Employees

The Impact of AI:

The rise of drones and robots taking over human couriers marks a monumental shift in the delivery service realm, triggering a significant industry transformation. This wave of automation is fundamentally reshaping how packages and goods are delivered. Drones, equipped with cutting-edge technology, and robots designed for autonomous navigation, are revolutionizing logistics and distribution networks.

This technological revolution disrupts the traditional human-centric model of delivery services. Drones swiftly transport goods through various terrains and deliver packages promptly, especially in challenging or remote areas. Similarly, robots equipped with advanced algorithms and sensors efficiently navigate urban landscapes, providing accurate and reliable last-mile delivery solutions.

The impact of this automation reaches across sectors reliant on efficient delivery services. E-commerce giants, logistics firms, and local businesses witness a shift, experiencing improved operational efficiency and reduced delivery times. Drones and robots optimize routes and schedules with unparalleled precision.

Furthermore, this evolution reshapes the workforce in delivery services. While it streamlines operations and bolsters efficiency, it raises questions about the future of human couriers. The automation of delivery tasks could potentially diminish traditional courier roles, impacting employment in this sector.

However, this automation also opens new avenues. There’s a growing demand for individuals skilled in managing and overseeing drone and robot logistics. Professionals proficient in programming, maintenance, and coordination of these automated delivery systems become increasingly valuable.

The Impact on the Workforce:

The adoption of automation within delivery services has a dual-faced impact on the workforce, paving the way for both challenges and opportunities. The increased reliance on automated delivery systems could potentially decrease the demand for traditional courier roles, leading to concerns about job displacement within this sector. The efficiency and precision of drones and robots in executing delivery tasks might diminish the necessity for certain manual roles historically fulfilled by human couriers.

However, amidst these concerns, the evolution towards automated delivery systems also ushers in the emergence of new job opportunities and specialized roles. The operation and maintenance of these sophisticated systems require skilled professionals proficient in managing, repairing, and overseeing the technological aspects of drones and robots used in delivery services. Individuals with expertise in programming, maintenance, and logistics coordination become pivotal in ensuring the seamless integration and optimal functioning of automated delivery systems.

Furthermore, as automation streamlines routine delivery tasks, it opens avenues for specialized services requiring human intervention. Roles focused on customer interaction, personalized services, and handling exceptional situations that demand human judgment and adaptability may emerge. For instance, customer service roles catering to unique delivery requests, resolving complex issues, or providing personalized support may gain prominence.

This transformative shift in the workforce landscape of delivery services underscores the importance of adapting skill sets to align with technological advancements. While the potential reduction in traditional courier roles poses challenges, it simultaneously sparks the need for a workforce capable of managing and enhancing the efficiency of automated systems. Moreover, it highlights the value of specialized human interventions that complement automation, ensuring a balance between technological prowess and personalized service within the evolving delivery services sector.

AI technologies that could take over couriers:

  • Drone Delivery Systems
  • Autonomous Delivery Vehicles
  • Route Optimization Algorithms
  • Package Sorting Systems
  • Predictive Analytics for Delivery Demand
  • Smart Inventory Management
  • AI Chatbots for Customer Support

4. Proofreaders

Affected Industries: 

AI-powered proofreading tools are profoundly impacting content-centric industries like publishing houses, content agencies, and content marketing businesses. In publishing, these tools streamline editing, offering real-time corrections for accurate, polished manuscripts. Similarly, content agencies benefit by refining drafts, enhancing overall quality, and meeting client expectations. These tools also aid content marketing, ensuring error-free, engaging messaging across various platforms, and bolstering brand credibility. This adoption signifies a commitment to delivering high-quality content efficiently, leveraging tech advancements for refined, accurate outputs in content creation and dissemination.


Proofreaders are integral guardians of written content, meticulously ensuring accuracy and clarity across various written materials. Their expertise revolves around a series of pivotal tasks aimed at refining text to its highest standard. Firstly, they meticulously scan through articles, manuscripts, or documents, adeptly identifying and rectifying errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, and typographical nuances. Beyond error correction, proofreaders maintain consistency in style, formatting, and language usage throughout the content, fostering coherence and professionalism. Their commitment extends to evaluating the text’s clarity and readability, suggesting enhancements that elevate comprehension and flow. Armed with an unwavering attention to detail, they meticulously comb through text, capturing subtle mistakes that might affect credibility. Moreover, they immerse themselves in understanding the context and purpose of the written work, ensuring alignment with the intended message. Often collaborating closely with writers and editors, proofreaders add the final sheen to content before it reaches its audience. Utilizing advanced proofreading tools supplements their expertise, reinforcing their ability to refine and perfect written material. Ultimately, proofreaders serve as meticulous gatekeepers, ensuring that written content achieves its utmost precision and effectiveness.

Some companies that have proofreaders: 

  • Publishing Houses (e.g., Penguin Random House, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster)
  • Media Outlets (e.g., The New York Times, BBC, Huffington Post)
  • Advertising Agencies (e.g., Ogilvy, Leo Burnett, McCann)
  • Educational Institutions (e.g., Colleges, educational publishing companies)
  • Legal Firms (e.g., Law firms, legal publications)
  • Corporate Companies (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Apple)
  • Content Creation Agencies (e.g., SEO agencies, digital marketing firms)

The Impact of AI

The rise of proofreading software, exemplified by platforms like Grammarly and Microsoft Word’s grammar check, marks a significant leap in automating the meticulous task of proofreading. This technology resonates deeply within industries reliant on content creation, editing, and publishing.

For industries deeply immersed in content creation and publishing, the arrival of AI-powered proofreading software has transformed the traditional proofreading process. Previously, this stage demanded meticulous human scrutiny, often time-consuming and prone to errors. However, these new tools streamline the process by providing instant feedback, spotting grammatical mistakes, suggesting improvements, and even offering style tips in real-time.

This impact spans across various sectors, including journalism, publishing, marketing, academia, and digital content creation. Professionals now experience faster proofreading, leading to quicker content creation and higher-quality outputs. Moreover, these tools enhance efficiency, allowing content creators to focus more on creativity rather than solely fixing errors.

In essence, AI-powered proofreading software signifies more than grammar correction. It represents a significant shift in content creation processes, empowering professionals to efficiently produce polished, error-free content. This transformation greatly impacts the quality and pace of content development and publication across diverse industries.

Impact on the Workforce: 

The automation of proofreading processes has the potential to diminish the need for traditional proofreading roles within various industries. Yet, this shift in technology doesn’t necessarily imply a decline in opportunities. Instead, it calls for a shift in skill sets and roles within the workforce.

While automated tools handle much of the proofreading tasks, there arises an opportunity for individuals adept at merging the efficiency of these automated tools with human oversight. Professionals skilled in utilizing these tools can ensure more meticulous quality control in content creation.

This amalgamation of automated proofreading tools with human intervention can elevate the overall content quality. Human oversight allows for a nuanced understanding of context, tone, and style, elements that automated systems might not accurately capture. This human touch contributes to content refinement and ensures that the final output meets the desired standards of accuracy and coherence.

Furthermore, this transition in the workforce landscape presents opportunities for professionals to evolve their roles. Rather than solely focusing on error correction, individuals can specialize in content optimization, focusing on enhancing the overall quality, relevance, and engagement of content. They can steer their expertise towards strategic roles, guiding content direction and ensuring it aligns with audience preferences and brand objectives.

AI technologies that could take over proofreaders:

  • Grammar Checking Software (e.g., Grammarly, ProWritingAid, Hemingway Editor)
  • Spelling and Punctuation Correction Tools (e.g., Microsoft Word’s grammar check)
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms
  • Style and Clarity Algorithms
  • Plagiarism Detection Tools (e.g., Turnitin, Copyscape)
  • AI-Integrated Writing Platforms (e.g., AI Writer, ShortlyAI)

5. Computer Support Specialists

Affected Industries: 

Industries heavily reliant on technical support are embracing AI-driven solutions. Tech companies, service providers, and customer support divisions across sectors like IT, telecommunications, and software are integrating AI-based systems to manage customer inquiries and technical issues.


Computer Support Specialists are pivotal in offering technical assistance to users grappling with computer-related challenges. Their primary task involves troubleshooting and resolving technical issues encountered by individuals or organizations. They provide expert guidance in diagnosing software or hardware problems and offer step-by-step instructions to resolve these issues. Specialists assist with software installations, updates, and system configurations to ensure smooth operations within an organization’s technical framework. They leverage their expertise to address queries about software functionalities, network connectivity, and general technical troubleshooting. Additionally, they contribute to creating instructional materials or manuals to assist users in navigating common technical hurdles. Ultimately, Computer Support Specialists play a critical role in sustaining efficient and functional computer systems, enabling seamless operations within technological environments for individuals and organizations alike.

Some companies that have computer support specialists: 

  • Microsoft
  • Apple
  • AT&T
  • IBM
  • Accenture
  • Oracle
  • Adobe
  • Best Buy
  • Amazon

The Impact Of AI: 

The integration of AI into computer support is a game-changer, completely revolutionizing how technical issues are managed. Tools like chatbots and automated systems have reshaped the landscape of traditional support services. These technologies excel at handling repetitive tasks, swiftly addressing common queries, offering initial troubleshooting steps, and guiding users through straightforward technical issues.

AI-powered chatbots, leveraging natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning, mimic human interactions remarkably well. They efficiently handle user inquiries and solve routine problems without human intervention. What’s remarkable is that these systems continuously learn from each interaction, constantly improving their knowledge base and problem-solving abilities over time.

Beyond just providing solutions, AI systems have predictive capabilities. They analyze historical data, patterns, and trends to forecast and prevent potential issues. This proactive approach contributes to enhanced system reliability and proactive maintenance.

The impact of AI on computer support is wide-ranging. It streamlines routine tasks, ensures 24/7 availability for users, and drastically reduces response times by improving initial troubleshooting. Ultimately, this integration transforms how support specialists interact with users, enhancing overall efficiency and customer satisfaction within the support ecosystem.

Impact on the Workforce: 

The integration of AI into computer support has significant implications for the workforce dynamics within technical support roles. While AI-driven systems excel in automating routine and repetitive tasks, the role of human-computer support specialists transforms rather than a complete replacement. This evolution demands a shift in skill sets and job roles within the field.

As AI technologies handle standardized queries and perform basic troubleshooting, it liberate human specialists from mundane tasks, allowing them to focus on more intricate and high-value responsibilities. Computer support specialists are increasingly becoming coordinators, overseeing AI-driven systems, analyzing complex issues that require nuanced understanding or human intervention, and ensuring the efficiency of AI-powered solutions.

Furthermore, the workforce in computer support sees a rise in demand for professionals who can harness AI-driven tools effectively. Professionals adept at managing, optimizing, and improving AI-driven support systems become invaluable. Their role extends beyond handling individual inquiries to strategizing AI integration, ensuring seamless user experiences, and constantly improving the efficiency and effectiveness of these systems.

AI technologies that could take over computer support specialists:

  • AI-Powered Chatbots
  • Automated Ticketing Systems
  • Predictive Maintenance Systems
  • Remote Monitoring and Management (RMM) Tools
  • Automated Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Tools
  • Knowledge Base and Self-Help Systems

6. Market Research Analysts

Affected Industries:

Various sectors and industries, particularly those heavily dependent on consumer data and behavior analysis, are swiftly embracing AI-driven research tools. This adoption spans across diverse domains, encompassing marketing firms seeking nuanced insights into consumer preferences to tailor targeted campaigns. Similarly, market research agencies are utilizing these advanced tools to conduct comprehensive studies for their clients, while companies across various sectors leverage AI to decipher consumer behavior for informed product development and strategic market positioning. The common thread among these industries is the utilization of AI technologies to delve deeper into consumer behavior, decipher intricate market trends, and discern competitor strategies, enabling more informed decision-making processes.

Description: Market research analysts serve as essential navigators in deciphering market complexities and consumer behaviors. Their multifaceted role involves meticulous data collection through surveys and interviews, analyzing this data to glean critical insights into market trends and consumer preferences. Utilizing statistical techniques and cutting-edge software, they forecast future market trajectories and compile comprehensive reports with actionable recommendations. Collaborating across teams, they synthesize these insights into strategic roadmaps that align with organizational goals. By leveraging specialized research tools, they streamline processes, empowering businesses with informed decisions crucial for thriving in competitive markets.

Some companies that have Market Research Analysts: 

  • Technology Companies: Apple, Microsoft, google. 
  • Financial Institutions: JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs
  • Retail and E-commerce: amazon and Walmart 
  • Telecommunications: Verizon. 
  • Automotive Industry: tesla and Toyota
  • Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals: Johnson & Johnson and Pfizer 
  • Consulting Firms: McKinsey & Company Boston Consulting Group (BCG).
  • Consumer Goods: Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola.
  • Entertainment and Media: Netflix & Disney.
  • Aerospace and Defense: Boeing & Lockheed Martin.

The Impact of AI:

The integration of AI in market research is rapidly redefining the role of analysts while reshaping the landscape of data analysis. Automated AI systems and advanced survey tools have revolutionized the collection and analysis of market data. These technologies optimize the aggregation of consumer insights, trends, and preferences, significantly augmenting the speed and accuracy of data processing. Capable of handling immense volumes of data in minimal time, AI-driven automation is fundamentally altering the traditional methodologies employed in market research.

Impact On The Workforce: 

This transformation within market research has catalyzed a shift in the responsibilities and skill sets of research analysts. As AI-driven automation streamlines routine data tasks, analysts are evolving into strategic interpreters of insights extracted from these automated systems. Their focus extends beyond basic data collection; it encompasses deciphering intricate data patterns, contextual analysis, and innovation in leveraging the wealth of information derived through AI-powered research tools.

The evolution of analysts from data collectors to strategic advisors highlights their pivotal role in guiding organizational strategies. Their fusion of domain expertise with AI-derived insights enables them to distill complex data into actionable strategies. This transformation positions analysts as critical contributors to organizational decision-making processes, leveraging AI-powered research tools to facilitate innovation and enhance strategic initiatives. As such, analysts assume a central role as strategic partners, leveraging AI-driven insights to drive innovation and steer effective decision-making within their respective organizations.

AI technologies that could take over Market Research Analysts:

  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Sentiment Analysis
  • Predictive Analytics and Machine Learning Models
  • Automated Survey and Data Collection Tools
  • Augmented Analytics Platforms
  • AI-Enhanced Consumer Segmentation
  • Social Media Listening and Monitoring Tools

7. Advertising Associates 

Affected Industries:

Industries encompassing advertising, media, and online marketing campaigns are swiftly transitioning to self-service ad platforms. Advertising agencies, which once relied heavily on sales representatives for ad placements, are now embracing these automated platforms to streamline their advertising strategies. These tools provide a dynamic interface that empowers advertisers to manage their campaigns effectively. Media companies, traditionally dependent on sales teams for negotiating ad spaces, are adapting to these evolving technologies. This transition is altering the advertising landscape, allowing businesses to engage directly with advertising platforms to curate and launch campaigns. Companies investing in online advertising, particularly on platforms like Google Ads and social media ad networks such as Facebook Ads, are actively adopting these self-service ad solutions. These tools enable them to tailor and manage their advertising campaigns with greater autonomy, optimizing their strategies in real time and enhancing their digital outreach.


Advertising salespeople play a crucial role in the dynamic world of marketing and media. Their primary responsibility involves fostering robust relationships with clients, understanding their unique advertising needs, and recommending optimal ad placements. They take a proactive approach, tailoring advertising solutions that perfectly align with client objectives and target audiences. Negotiating terms, pricing, and ad placements is at the heart of their role, aiming to strike a balance that benefits both the advertiser and the media outlet. Staying ahead of market trends and advertising strategies is key to their success. Leveraging this knowledge, they craft persuasive pitches and proposals. In today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape, these professionals facilitate transactions through various tools like self-serve ad platforms, APIs, or advanced tech solutions, making the ad buying process seamless for advertisers. Their diverse skill set spans sales expertise, adept client relationship management, and profound industry insights, all contributing to driving revenue through impactful and strategic advertising approaches.

Some companies that have Advertising Salespeople: 

  • Google
  • Facebook
  • LinkedIn
  • Amazon Advertising
  • Twitter
  • The New York Times
  • NBCUniversal
  • Spotify
  • Salesforce
  • BuzzFeed

The Impact of AI:

Web and social media platforms have undergone a transformative shift with the introduction of self-serve ad marketplaces, heralding a new era in advertising and marketing. These platforms, powered by AI algorithms, empower businesses to directly manage ad campaigns and purchase ad space independently, diminishing reliance on traditional sales representatives. They offer intuitive interfaces, allowing businesses to autonomously create, optimize, and oversee ad campaigns. This AI-driven revolution is reshaping the buying and selling dynamics of advertising space, ushering in a more direct and automated approach to advertising.

The Impact on Workforce:

The advent of self-serve ad platforms is altering the landscape of advertising sales roles. While traditional roles may see a decline, there’s a burgeoning demand for specialized positions centered on analytics, strategic planning, and personalized client relationships in the digital advertising sphere. Professionals equipped with skills in data analytics, leveraging AI insights, and crafting targeted ad strategies are increasingly sought after. This shift emphasizes the need for individuals capable of navigating self-serve ad platforms, interpreting data for strategic decisions, and building client relationships based on insights and personalized approaches, shaping the evolving roles within the advertising industry.

AI technologies that could take over Advertising Salespeople:

  • Programmatic Advertising Platforms
  • AI-Powered Targeting and Personalization Tools
  • Predictive Analytics for Ad Campaign Optimization
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) in Ad Copy Generation
  • Chatbots and Conversational AI in Customer Engagement
  • Automated Ad Design and Creative Generation
  • AI-Powered Sales Analytics and CRM

8. Retail Associates

Affected Industries:

Retail outlets, supermarkets, and businesses with robust online infrastructures are swiftly integrating automated checkout systems and prioritizing online sales channels. Across diverse sectors, retailers are embracing self-checkout terminals to offer customers streamlined and convenient shopping experiences. Likewise, enterprises emphasizing online sales capitalize on e-commerce platforms, allowing consumers to research, compare, and make purchases without requiring direct sales assistance in physical stores.


Retail salespeople serve as the face of businesses in retail settings, engaging directly with customers to facilitate sales and enrich shopping experiences. Their core duties involve aiding customers in finding products, furnishing details about merchandise, and suggesting items based on individual preferences. These professionals employ active listening skills to comprehend customer requirements, address inquiries, and guide purchasing choices. They manage transactions via cash registers or digital systems, ensuring precise and efficient payment processing. Additionally, they contribute to maintaining store aesthetics by arranging merchandise displays and monitoring inventory levels. Retail salespeople significantly impact customer satisfaction by delivering personalized service, fostering a welcoming shopping ambiance, and sharing comprehensive product knowledge.

Some companies that have Retail associates: 

  • Walmart
  • Target
  • Best Buy
  • Apple
  • Nike
  • The Home Depot
  • Lowe’s
  • Macy’s
  • Costco Wholesale
  • Gap Inc.

The Impact of AI:

The integration of self-checkout systems and the increasing shift towards online shopping are transforming the retail and consumer goods sectors. Self-checkout kiosks in physical stores and the prevalence of online shopping platforms have reshaped the traditional sales process. Customers now have the option to bypass traditional checkout lines, scanning and paying for items independently. Additionally, online research and purchasing have streamlined the shopping experience, impacting the way sales roles traditionally interact with customers in physical stores.

Impact on the Workforce:

Automation in retail sales has the potential to reduce the demand for conventional sales roles that primarily focus on transactional interactions. However, this shift might lead to a redefinition of sales roles. There could be a pivot towards positions emphasizing personalized customer experiences, product knowledge, and service-oriented interactions. Retail sales professionals may need to transition towards becoming brand ambassadors or product specialists, offering in-depth insights, personalized recommendations, and enhanced customer service to cater to individual preferences and provide a differentiated shopping experience. This evolution in sales roles emphasizes the importance of building strong customer relationships and expertise in the products or services offered, leveraging these aspects to create added value for customers beyond the basic transactional process.

AI technologies that could take over Retail:

  • Programmatic Advertising Platforms
  • AI-Powered Targeting and Personalization Tools
  • Predictive Analytics for Ad Campaign Optimization
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) in Ad Copy Generation
  • Chatbots and Conversational AI in Customer Engagement
  • Automated Ad Design and Creative Generation
  • AI-Powered Sales Analytics and CRM

9. Compensation and Benefits Managers

The Integration of AI:

Automated benefits systems like Ultipro and Workday have reshaped how organizations manage compensation and benefits, especially in larger corporations and multinational entities. These systems have streamlined various aspects of employee benefits, from payroll management to compliance with regulations. By offering centralized platforms, they efficiently administer and oversee diverse benefits such as healthcare plans and retirement contributions, optimizing the overall compensation structure for employees.

Impact on the Workforce:

The automation of compensation and benefits management could potentially alter the landscape of traditional managerial roles within HR departments. While there might be a decrease in roles primarily focusing on administrative tasks, there could be a surge in demand for professionals skilled in managing and optimizing automated HR systems. This shift might accentuate roles emphasizing strategic planning, decision-making, and adept data analysis to tailor benefits packages and ensure regulatory compliance. Professionals capable of interpreting insights gleaned from these systems and applying them to craft innovative benefits programs or enrich employee experiences beyond standard compensation might gain prominence in this evolving work environment. This shift could also underscore the growing importance of roles dedicated to enhancing employee well-being and experience within organizations.

Some companies that have Compensation and Benefits Managers: 

  • Google
  • Amazon
  • Microsoft
  • IBM
  • Walmart
  • Bank of America
  • Accenture
  • Deloitte
  • Johnson & Johnson
  • Procter & Gamble

The Impact of AI:

Automated benefits systems such as Ultipro and Workday have revolutionized the handling of compensation and benefits within organizations, particularly in larger companies and multinational corporations. These automated systems streamline processes related to employee benefits, compensation calculations, payroll management, and compliance with regulations. They offer centralized platforms that efficiently manage and administer various employee benefits, from healthcare plans to retirement contributions, optimizing the overall compensation package.

Impact on the Workforce:

The automation of compensation and benefits management could potentially reduce the demand for traditional managerial roles focused on administrative tasks within HR departments. However, this shift might create a demand for professionals with expertise in managing and optimizing automated HR systems. There could be an increased emphasis on roles that involve strategic planning, decision-making, and data analysis in optimizing employee benefits packages and ensuring compliance. Professionals capable of interpreting data insights from these systems and leveraging them to tailor benefits packages or devise strategic HR policies may become increasingly valuable in this evolving landscape. This evolution may also prioritize roles that focus on employee well-being, such as designing innovative benefits programs or enhancing employee experiences beyond traditional compensation structures.

AI technologies that could take over Compensation and Benefits Managers:

  • Automated HR Systems (e.g., SAP SuccessFactors, Oracle HCM Cloud)
  • Predictive Analytics and Machine Learning
  • Personalization Algorithms
  • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants
  • Robotic Process Automation (RPA)
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP)
  • Advanced Data Analytics Tools

10. Receptionists

Affected Industries:

Businesses operating in office settings, corporate environments, and those experiencing high call volumes or frequent visitor traffic are transitioning towards automated reception systems. This shift is prevalent across diverse sectors, ranging from technology firms with heavy call volumes to corporate offices managing regular visitor traffic.

Description: Receptionists are the frontline ambassadors of organizations, embodying the first point of contact and the heartbeat of daily operations. Their multifaceted role spans various pivotal responsibilities essential for seamless administrative functioning. They warmly welcome visitors, manage phone calls, and expertly navigate inquiries, adeptly directing them to the right departments or individuals. In orchestrating schedules and appointments, they ensure the efficient flow of meetings and activities within the organization. Beyond these logistical tasks, receptionists provide invaluable administrative support by managing correspondence, handling office supplies, and tending to various office needs. Their adeptness in customer service shines through as they assist visitors and callers, offering information, guidance, and a hospitable experience. Proficiently managing office technology and creating an inviting reception area, receptionists craft the initial impression that sets the tone for organizational professionalism and efficiency. Their role extends far beyond mere reception duties, embodying the cornerstone of efficient communication and administrative support within an organization.

Some companies that have receptionists: 

  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Apple
  • Amazon
  • Deloitte
  • IBM
  • JPMorgan Chase & Co.
  • Marriott International
  • Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc.
  • Coca-Cola Company

The Impact of AI:

The transformation of reception services through automated phone systems and scheduling tools represents a significant evolution in how businesses manage their front-end operations. Specifically, technology firms and multinational corporations are at the forefront of adopting these systems to streamline their reception services.

These automated systems encompass a range of functionalities that were traditionally handled by human receptionists. Call routing, a pivotal aspect of reception services, is efficiently managed through these systems. By utilizing predetermined algorithms or interactive voice response (IVR) systems, incoming calls are directed to the appropriate departments or individuals, effectively handling inquiries without human intervention. 

Moreover, these tools extend beyond call management by incorporating advanced appointment scheduling mechanisms. They allow clients, visitors, or employees to schedule appointments seamlessly through user-friendly interfaces or online portals. This not only optimizes the scheduling process but also ensures accuracy and convenience, mitigating the need for manual coordination typically managed by receptionists.

Additionally, in environments with regular visitor traffic, these systems efficiently manage visitor registration and check-in processes. They provide self-service kiosks or digital interfaces for visitors to input their information, issue visitor badges, and notify hosts of arrivals, streamlining the visitor management process without relying on human receptionists.

Impact on the Workforce:

The automation of reception services may potentially reduce the demand for traditional receptionist roles, particularly those involved in routine tasks like call handling and basic appointment scheduling. However, this change could lead to a refocusing of roles towards higher-level customer service skills. The evolving landscape may demand professionals capable of managing complex inquiries, providing specialized assistance, and offering a more personalized experience to visitors or callers. Receptionists might transition into roles emphasizing human interaction, where their expertise in handling nuanced queries or providing tailored assistance becomes pivotal. Additionally, the shift might create opportunities for roles involving technology oversight, ensuring the smooth functioning and optimization of automated reception systems to enhance overall visitor or caller experiences.

AI technologies that could take over receptionists:

  • Virtual Receptionist Systems
  • Automated Call Routing
  • Voice Recognition Systems
  • Visitor Management Software
  • Appointment Scheduling Tools
  • Self-Service Kiosks
  • Facial Recognition Systems

Reskilling and Upskilling

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence For Upskilling And Retraining

In the fast-paced shift toward the digital age, the need for employee development and retraining has become very important. Companies need to think about how they can adapt to new technologies and evolve their practices to stay competitive. Thus,  this poses a vital question: what should companies focus on to keep improving with changing AI technologies? One promising avenue is the realm of chatbots, particularly Artificial Intelligence-driven ones, which serve as effective tools to support ongoing learning and development in the workplace.

Workplace Development In The Digital Age

An MIT study showed that the productivity of workers who used ChatGPT increased by 37%. Thus, while AI can help complete work, automation should be seen as something other than a human replacement.

A Few Words About ChatGPT

ChatGPT belongs to a group of smart models created by OpenAI. These models use data and context to produce text, enabling users to engage in conversations with them. ChatGPT proves valuable for enhancing efficiency, handling tasks such as automating web browsing and data extraction, as well as sparking creative ideas and suggesting alternative approaches.

By automating lower-level tasks, employees can focus on more critical tasks that require intuition and human insight. This increases work efficiency, allowing you to develop new skills and abilities. Thus, by harnessing the power of Artificial Intelligence, business leaders can invest in their workforce by providing upskilling and retraining opportunities to: increase retention, increase satisfaction, and develop talents.

In addition to creating “universal” employees who can adapt and quickly switch between different roles and tasks, prioritizing learning will help companies retain and attract the best talent. According to a Conference Board survey, almost 63% of American employees are happy in the workplace, thanks partly to education and training programs. Furthermore, a Gallup poll found that nearly half (50%) of American workers would change jobs if a new company offered upskilling opportunities.

Temporary learning is good, but it’s a road to nowhere. Instead, it is essential to cultivate a culture of continuous learning so that companies can grow and thrive in the age of AI. By training employees, companies:

  • Promote innovation.
  • Increase employee engagement.
  • Create a flexible workforce capable of accepting change.
  • Help to expand individual abilities.
  • Reveal untapped talents.

The needs of two different employees are different. However, regardless of their positions, people increasingly turn to training that helps develop skills such as leadership, cooperation, adaptability, empathy, and project and team management. Artificial Intelligence can perform various tasks but never replace empathetic, communicative leaders.

How Can Artificial Intelligence Help?

Many companies are already using AI in one form or another. For example, some media use it to compose titles and transcribe audio recordings of interviews. In addition, you can use Artificial Intelligence chatbots by connecting them to a course platform to support staff development and retraining by acting as virtual assistants. Such chatbots can generate informative responses and suggestions to help your students. They can help with research and information gathering by offering a variety of sources and citations.

The Future Of Upskilling And Retraining

The need for upskilling and retraining is constant and essential as technology advances rapidly. Companies must be prepared to invest in the development of their employees continually. With Artificial Intelligence intervening in various work roles, employees must stay relevant like never before. Many can innovate a field of employment that works in tandem with robots and automated systems. Or, start developing additional skills that may be needed in the digital age. Since AI can take over the part of the work that requires “hard” skills, developing “soft” skills can become very important. Soft skills include:

  • Empathy
  • Emotional intellect
  • Sociability
  • Leadership
  • Creativity
  • Mental flexibility
  • Analytical thinking
  • Personal efficiency
  • Teamwork

Thus, as AI becomes more adept at technical tasks, there will be an increasing demand for workers with strong interpersonal skills.

Wrapping Up

Continuous learning is crucial to keep employees and companies ahead in a swiftly evolving digital landscape. Chatbots powered by AI emerge as a practical solution to facilitate ongoing learning, fostering growth and development in the workplace. Leveraging AI for knowledge gathering and crafting personalized interactions with chatbots, companies can establish effective upskilling and reskilling programs, ensuring their employees stay well-prepared. This approach contributes to creating a vibrant learning environment, arming employees with essential skills, promoting continuous growth and adaptability, and nurturing a culture centered on ethical innovation and company values.

New Opportunities and Emerging Roles 

Machine Learning Engineer 

Machine learning is a part of the computer science field that is specifically concerned with artificial intelligence. Machine learning involves interpreting data in a very similar manner to how typical humans learn. The goal is for the machine to get better at learning and share information based on what it learns with the user. 

Machine learning engineers are responsible for developing artificial intelligence algorithms that can learn and adapt on their own. This field requires a strong background in computer science and statistics, along with knowledge of programming languages such as Java and Python.

Natural language processing (NLP) scientist

Nowadays, ChatGPT from OpenAI is a well-known chatbot model and it is a perfect example of the role of a natural language processing scientist. With the increasing growth of machine learning jobs, there’s a rising demand for NLP scientists. These professionals play a crucial part in advancing technology to enable computers to understand, interpret, generate, and engage with human language more effectively. NLP scientists specialize in creating computer programs and algorithms, using statistical and machine learning techniques to process human language data such as text, speech, and audio. Their work is highly utilized in areas such as automated translation, speech recognition, and chatbot development. Furthermore, collaborating with software engineers, data scientists, and linguists, NLP scientists implement these systems while keeping up with the constant advancements in this rapidly evolving field.

Data Scientists

In the world of language technology, ChatGPT from OpenAI is a well-known chatbot model. This exposure also sheds light on the role of a natural language processing scientist. With the increasing growth of machine learning jobs, there’s a rising demand for NLP scientists. These professionals play a crucial part in advancing technology to enable computers to understand, interpret, generate, and engage with human language more effectively. NLP scientists specialize in creating computer programs and algorithms, using statistical and machine learning techniques to process human language data such as text, speech, and audio. The results of their work find applications in areas like automated translation, speech recognition, sentiment analysis, and chatbot development. Collaborating with software engineers, data scientists, and linguists, NLP scientists implement these systems while keeping up with the constant advancements in this rapidly evolving field.

Business intelligence (BI) developer

Business Intelligence (BI) developers play important roles in organizations that aim for data-driven decision-making. Their role involves designing and building the infrastructure necessary for systems to function. For instance, they are important in implementing data storage systems crucial for various processes. BI developers also focus on integrating systems to ensure data quality, facilitating effective use across different functions. Individuals in this role excel in communication and problem-solving, backed by expertise in data analysis, programming, and statistics.

Director of Marketing

In the B2B SaaS industry, a director of marketing plays an important role in a company’s success. The director of marketing has a deep understanding of both the technology and the target market, and this person oversees all marketing activities related to SaaS, including AI products, and develops and implements marketing strategies to promote them. Working closely with product development teams, they ensure that the marketing strategy communicates a product’s features and capabilities. Additionally, they analyze market trends, monitor competitors, and research customer needs, implementing marketing strategies and partnerships to support the growth of their ecosystem.

Ethical and Societal Considerations 

AI’s impact on the workplace raises ethical concerns. Job displacement prompts questions about meaningful employment opportunities amidst evolving technologies. Automation may exacerbate economic disparities, requiring measures to address societal inequalities. Ethical considerations demand organizational transparency and accountability, guarding against biases. Furthermore, governments play an important role in ensuring fairness, protecting workers’ rights, and addressing privacy concerns. Therefore, proactively identifying and reducing risks associated with technology adoption is vital. While technology offers immense potential, addressing these ethical challenges ensures its equitable implementation for a future-ready workforce.

Job Displacement and Unemployment Rates

As artificial intelligence along with automation become more common and reshape workplaces, the resulting issues in job displacements and unemployment continue to raise concerns. The transition from human to machine-performed tasks prompts extensive job retraining programs to equip individuals with relevant skills. Despite these efforts, the mental health toll is significant, with job loss triggering feelings of insecurity, anxiety, and depression. Rapid job automation intensifies the challenges individuals face in adapting to new roles. Beyond individual struggles, soaring unemployment rates contribute to societal unrest and economic instability, fostering income inequality and higher poverty rates. This creates a detrimental cycle where those displaced by technological advancements face heightened difficulties securing suitable employment. Ethically navigating this landscape requires addressing the mental health impact of job displacement and societal consequences of elevated unemployment rates, emphasizing fairness and sustainability in the face of technological progress.

Economic Disparities and Income Inequality

The growing use of technology in various industries raises concerns about increasing economic gaps, and socioeconomic, and income disparities. The potential of technology to benefit those with access to advanced tools raises worries about hindering economic mobility, especially for individuals from lower-income backgrounds, deepening social divides. This leads to various concerns such as the impact of decreasing or stagnating wages, which in turn can affect low-skilled workers who are most susceptible to job automation. Furthermore, because of limited opportunities for career growth and wage improvement, individuals from disadvantageous backgrounds can become stuck in low-paying jobs 

Moreover, technology’s role in hiring processes may introduce biases, potentially favoring candidates from privileged backgrounds and discriminating against certain groups, undermining efforts for a fair and inclusive job market. Policymakers and organizations must proactively address these concerns through regulations and monitoring mechanisms to ensure fairness and minimize adverse effects on vulnerable populations.

Responsibility of Organizations and Governments

Ensuring ethical AI practices in workplaces is a significant task for both organizations and governments. With the widespread use of AI technologies, responsibility involves a commitment to ethical use, preventing harm and discrimination. In the face of AI’s increasing autonomy, establishing proactive guidelines, regulations, and ethical frameworks becomes crucial. Accountability is also vital for maintaining trust, with organizations answering for biases in AI algorithms and governments implementing protective regulations. A collaborative effort to hold both entities accountable can minimize risks and optimize the benefits of AI integration, promoting responsible AI use in workplaces.

Ethical Implications of AI Automation

AI automation raises issues about job displacements which by 2023, will impact 800 million people globally. As a result of AI bias, machines learning from data may unintentionally reinforce biases, which leads to unfair outcomes and reinforces societal inequality.  For instance, using AI to screen job applicants based on biased historical data poses a risk of unintentional discrimination.

Furthermore, privacy issues raise another concern because AI systems rely on extensive personal data. Collecting personal information without consent poses privacy risks, including misuse or unauthorized access. Therefore, the threat of data breaches adds to the concerns, risking the exposure of sensitive information and compromising individual privacy.


To keep up with constantly changing skill requirements due to AI, individuals must commit to lifelong learning. Nowadays, organizations play an important role as they invest in various forms of training initiatives for their employees. Furthermore, as governments begin to recognize the societal impact of AI, they need to create policies that promote upskilling and reskilling, ensuring a smooth transition to automation.

Therefore, employees, companies, and governments need to work together to get ready for a job market dominated by AI. Our society should be flexible in how we approach education, training, and developing our workforce to adapt to these changes. Societies can benefit from AI while minimizing job displacement challenges if they welcome change, promote adaptability, and prioritize skill development. So, as technology driven by artificial intelligence evolves, it’s crucial to build a workforce that can adapt and thrive.

Summarizing the impact of AI on jobs, emphasizes the need for adaptation and preparation in the face of technological advancements.


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