Python is a versatile and widely-used programming language that is constantly evolving. As new versions of Python are released, it can be beneficial to use different versions for different projects or to test compatibility. Virtualenv is a popular tool that allows you to create isolated Python environments, enabling you to install different Python versions and packages without interfering with your system-wide Python installation.
Step 1: Install Virtualenv
The first step to using different Python versions with Virtualenv is to install Virtualenv itself. You can install Virtualenv using pip, the package installer for Python. Open your terminal or command prompt and run the following command:
pip install virtualenv
This will install Virtualenv globally on your system.
Step 2: Create a Virtual Environment
Once Virtualenv is installed, you can create a new virtual environment for your project. A virtual environment is a self-contained directory that contains a Python installation and any packages you install within it. To create a virtual environment, navigate to the directory where you want to create it and run the following command:
This will create a new directory called “myenv” that contains the virtual environment.
Step 3: Activate the Virtual Environment
After creating the virtual environment, you need to activate it before you can use it. The activation process differs depending on your operating system.
For Windows, run the following command:
For macOS and Linux, run the following command:
Once the virtual environment is activated, your shell prompt will be prefixed with the name of the virtual environment, indicating that you are now using the isolated Python environment.
Step 4: Install a Different Python Version
With the virtual environment activated, you can now install a different version of Python. You can specify the Python version during the creation of the virtual environment by using the
--python flag followed by the path to the Python interpreter executable. For example, to create a virtual environment with Python 3.9, you would run the following command:
virtualenv --python=/path/to/python3.9 myenv
Alternatively, if you have already created the virtual environment without specifying a Python version, you can still change the Python version by manually installing a different version of Python within the virtual environment. To do this, activate the virtual environment and then use the
pip command to install the desired Python version. For example, to install Python 3.9, you would run:
pip install python==3.9
Note that you may need to specify the desired version using the correct package name. Check the Python documentation or package index for the specific package name for the desired version.
Step 5: Verify the Python Version
After installing the desired Python version, you can verify that the correct version is being used within the virtual environment. Simply run the following command:
This will display the version of Python that is currently active in the virtual environment.
Step 6: Install Packages
Once you have the desired Python version installed in the virtual environment, you can start installing packages specific to your project. Activate the virtual environment and use the
pip command to install packages just as you would in a regular Python environment. For example:
pip install requests
This will install the “requests” package within the virtual environment.
Step 7: Deactivate the Virtual Environment
When you are finished working in the virtual environment, you can deactivate it to return to your system-wide Python environment. Simply run the following command:
After deactivating the virtual environment, your shell prompt will no longer be prefixed with the virtual environment’s name.
Alternative Approach: Using pyenv
Another approach to using different Python versions is to use pyenv, a popular Python version management tool. Pyenv allows you to easily install and switch between multiple Python versions on the same machine. Here are the basic steps to use pyenv:
1. Install pyenv by following the instructions in the official pyenv repository: [pyenv](https://github.com/pyenv/pyenv#installation)
2. Install the desired Python versions using pyenv. For example, to install Python 3.9, run the following command:
pyenv install 3.9.0
3. Create a new virtual environment using the desired Python version. For example:
pyenv virtualenv 3.9.0 myenv
4. Activate the virtual environment:
pyenv activate myenv
This will set the desired Python version for the current shell session.
5. Install packages and work on your project within the activated virtual environment.
6. Deactivate the virtual environment when you are done:
Pyenv provides a flexible and convenient way to manage multiple Python versions and virtual environments, making it a popular choice for developers who frequently switch between different Python environments.